1. Ataman Solovyev. An hereditary Cossack who fought for Kolchak, was captured and pardoned, and then “became a bandit by the will of fate,” he organized a band that terrorized his native Khakassia as well as Krasnoyarsk kray and Kemerovo oblast. He imposed draconian order on his men and inflicted crimes against humanity against the population. When his situation deteriorated, his men urged him to flee to Mongolia “but he refused.” He continued to fight and hide out until 1924 when he was promised a pardon but then shot “while attempting to escape. Now on the ataman’s grave, a cross has been put up.”
2. Boris Annenkov. A veteran of World War I, he led an uprising in Siberia in 1918 and then suppressed its opponents in bestial fashion. His cruelty was legendary, but his unit was remarkable in that it included many mercenaries as well as Afghans, Uyghurs, and Chinese. Its victims numbered “in the thousands.” After Kolchak was defeated, Annenkov fled into the Semirechye region and then to China. He was jailed there for three years, but in 1926 he was handed over to the Bolsheviks and “after a year shot.”
3. Anna Cherepanova. Together with her husband, she formed a bandit gang, killing all and sundry in the name of personal enrichment. The band was disarmed only in 1924. The couple changed their name and lived for more than a decade in Krasnoyarsk before they were recognized by the child of one of their victims. Her husband died, supposedly of natural causes, in 1936. Cherepanova herself, because her actions had occurred before the time set by the statute of limitations, she reportedly was never punished.
4. Ataman Hryhoryev. A Cossack in Ukraine, Hryhoryev fought against the Reds and then went over to the anti-Bolshevik cause, fighting sometimes for Ukrainians and sometimes for Russians. He was notorious for carrying out “uninterrupted pogroms.” He was finally killed by Ataman Makhno.
5. Ataman Andrey Shkuro. A Kuban Cossack, he organized what became a division in Denikin’s Volunter Army. He was notorious for his cruelty, Russian 7 says, a man whose forces executed four thousand Makhno fighters and who ordered that all the Jews and the wives of those who rose against the Whites. But he got in trouble with the White commanders by stealing from the population. He fled Russia at the end of the civil war in the south, lived in Paris, and then in 1941, he offered his service to the Nazis. In April 1945, he was handed over to the English who gave him to the Soviets who then executed him in January 1947.
6. Aleksandr Kaygorodov. Half Russian and half Altay, he was expelled from Kolchak’s army for talk about organizing an alternative “national army.” He then organized a force in the Gorno-Altai from which he fled to Mongolia and organized a larger army consisting of representatives of local nationalities. Until early 1922, his force continued to stage raids into Soviet Russia; but then he was caught and killed – and the Reds carried his head around to villages to show that he really had been defeated.
7. Ivan Kalmykov. Not a Cossack by birth but rather by claim, he organized a large force which controlled much of the railroad near Khabarovsk where he sabotaged Kolchak trains and attacked Reds with equal abandon. He tried to form an alliance with the American and Japanese interventionists but they were put off just as much as the population by his cruelty and barbarism. He fled to China following the victory of the Reds where he was arrested and then shot supposedly while attempting to escape.